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The Philosophy of Rhetoric (1937) by rhetorician I. Richards describes a metaphor as having two parts: the tenor and the vehicle.
The tenor is the subject to which attributes are ascribed.
Metaphor, like other types of analogy, can be distinguished from metonymy as one of two fundamental modes of thought.
Metaphor and analogy work by bringing together concepts from different conceptual domains, while metonymy uses one element from a given domain to refer to another closely related element.
A common definition of metaphor can be described as a comparison that shows how two things that are not alike in most ways are similar in another important way.
They explain how a metaphor is simply understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another, called a "conduit metaphor".
Just in case you don’t know the difference, here’s what they mean: Here’s a simile in action: My heart is like a train pounding down the tracks.
Here’s another simile: My heart pounds as if it were a train on the tracks.
The audience does not need to visualize the action; dead metaphors normally go unnoticed.This quotation expresses a metaphor because the world is not literally a stage.By asserting that the world is a stage, Shakespeare uses points of comparison between the world and a stage to convey an understanding about the mechanics of the world and the behavior of the people within it.Metaphors are most frequently compared with similes.
A simile is a specific type of metaphor that uses the words "like" or "as" in comparing two objects.The vehicle is the object whose attributes are borrowed.